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# Permanent Income Model using the DLE Class¶

## Contents¶

Co-author: Sebastian Graves

This lecture is part of a suite of lectures that use the quantecon DLE class to instantiate models within the [HS13b] class of models described in detail in Recursive Models of Dynamic Linear Economies.

In addition to what’s included in Anaconda, this lecture uses the quantecon library.

In :
!pip install --upgrade quantecon


This lecture adds a third solution method for the linear-quadratic-Gaussian permanent income model with $\beta R = 1$, complementing the other two solution methods described in Optimal Savings I: The Permanent Income Model and Optimal Savings II: LQ Techniques and this Jupyter notebook http://nbviewer.jupyter.org/github/QuantEcon/QuantEcon.notebooks/blob/master/permanent_income.ipynb.

The additional solution method uses the DLE class.

In this way, we map the permanent income model into the framework of Hansen & Sargent (2013) “Recursive Models of Dynamic Linear Economies” [HS13b].

We’ll also require the following imports

In :
import quantecon as qe
import numpy as np
import scipy.linalg as la
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
%matplotlib inline
from quantecon import DLE

np.set_printoptions(suppress=True, precision=4)


## The Permanent Income Model¶

The LQ permanent income model is an example of a savings problem.

A consumer has preferences over consumption streams that are ordered by the utility functional

$$E_0 \sum_{t=0}^\infty \beta^t u(c_t) \tag{1}$$

where $E_t$ is the mathematical expectation conditioned on the consumer’s time $t$ information, $c_t$ is time $t$ consumption, $u(c)$ is a strictly concave one-period utility function, and $\beta \in (0,1)$ is a discount factor.

The LQ model gets its name partly from assuming that the utility function $u$ is quadratic:

$$u(c) = -.5(c - \gamma)^2$$

where $\gamma>0$ is a bliss level of consumption.

The consumer maximizes the utility functional (1) by choosing a consumption, borrowing plan $\{c_t, b_{t+1}\}_{t=0}^\infty$ subject to the sequence of budget constraints

$$c_t + b_t = R^{-1} b_{t+1} + y_t, t \geq 0 \tag{2}$$

where $y_t$ is an exogenous stationary endowment process, $R$ is a constant gross risk-free interest rate, $b_t$ is one-period risk-free debt maturing at $t$, and $b_0$ is a given initial condition.

We shall assume that $R^{-1} = \beta$.

Equation (2) is linear.

We use another set of linear equations to model the endowment process.

In particular, we assume that the endowment process has the state-space representation

\begin{aligned} z_{t+1} & = A_{22} z_t + C_2 w_{t+1} \cr y_t & = U_y z_t \cr \end{aligned} \tag{3}

where $w_{t+1}$ is an IID process with mean zero and identity contemporaneous covariance matrix, $A_{22}$ is a stable matrix, its eigenvalues being strictly below unity in modulus, and $U_y$ is a selection vector that identifies $y$ with a particular linear combination of the $z_t$.

We impose the following condition on the consumption, borrowing plan:

$$E_0 \sum_{t=0}^\infty \beta^t b_t^2 < +\infty \tag{4}$$

This condition suffices to rule out Ponzi schemes.

(We impose this condition to rule out a borrow-more-and-more plan that would allow the household to enjoy bliss consumption forever)

The state vector confronting the household at $t$ is

$$x_t = \begin{bmatrix} z_t \\ b_t \end{bmatrix}$$

where $b_t$ is its one-period debt falling due at the beginning of period $t$ and $z_t$ contains all variables useful for forecasting its future endowment.

We assume that $\{y_t\}$ follows a second order univariate autoregressive process:

$$y_{t+1} = \alpha + \rho_1 y_t + \rho_2 y_{t-1} + \sigma w_{t+1}$$

### Solution with the DLE Class¶

One way of solving this model is to map the problem into the framework outlined in Section 4.8 of [HS13b] by setting up our technology, information and preference matrices as follows:

Technology: $\phi_c= \left[ {\begin{array}{c} 1 \\ 0 \end{array} } \right]$ , $\phi_g= \left[ {\begin{array}{c} 0 \\ 1 \end{array} } \right]$ , $\phi_i= \left[ {\begin{array}{c} -1 \\ -0.00001 \end{array} } \right]$, $\Gamma= \left[ {\begin{array}{c} -1 \\ 0 \end{array} } \right]$, $\Delta_k = 0$,  $\Theta_k = R$.

Information: $A_{22} = \left[ {\begin{array}{ccc} 1 & 0 & 0 \\ \alpha & \rho_1 & \rho_2 \\ 0 & 1 & 0 \end{array} } \right]$, $C_{2} = \left[ {\begin{array}{c} 0 \\ \sigma \\ 0 \end{array} } \right]$, $U_b = \left[ {\begin{array}{ccc} \gamma & 0 & 0 \end{array} } \right]$, $U_d = \left[ {\begin{array}{ccc} 0 & 1 & 0 \\ 0 & 0 & 0 \end{array} } \right]$.

Preferences: $\Lambda = 0$, $\Pi = 1$, $\Delta_h = 0$, $\Theta_h = 0$.

We set parameters

$\alpha = 10, \beta = 0.95, \rho_1 = 0.9, \rho_2 = 0, \sigma = 1$

(The value of $\gamma$ does not affect the optimal decision rule)

The chosen matrices mean that the household’s technology is:

$$c_t + k_{t-1} = i_t + y_t$$$$\frac{k_t}{R} = i_t$$$$l_t^2 = (0.00001)^2i_t$$

Combining the first two of these gives the budget constraint of the permanent income model, where $k_t = b_{t+1}$.

The third equation is a very small penalty on debt-accumulation to rule out Ponzi schemes.

We set up this instance of the DLE class below:

In :
α, β, ρ_1, ρ_2, σ = 10, 0.95, 0.9, 0, 1

γ = np.array([[-1], ])
ϕ_c = np.array([, ])
ϕ_g = np.array([, ])
ϕ_1 = 1e-5
ϕ_i = np.array([[-1], [-ϕ_1]])
δ_k = np.array([])
θ_k = np.array([[1 / β]])
β = np.array([[β]])
l_λ = np.array([])
π_h = np.array([])
δ_h = np.array([])
θ_h = np.array([])

a22 = np.array([[1,   0,   0],
[α, ρ_1, ρ_2],
[0, 1, 0]])

c2 = np.array([, [σ], ])
ud = np.array([[0, 1, 0],
[0, 0, 0]])
ub = np.array([[100, 0, 0]])

x0 = np.array([, , , , ])

info1 = (a22, c2, ub, ud)
tech1 = (ϕ_c, ϕ_g, ϕ_i, γ, δ_k, θ_k)
pref1 = (β, l_λ, π_h, δ_h, θ_h)
econ1 = DLE(info1, tech1, pref1)


To check the solution of this model with that from the LQ problem, we select the $S_c$ matrix from the DLE class.

The solution to the DLE economy has:

$$c_t = S_c x_t$$
In :
econ1.Sc

Out:
array([[ 0.    , -0.05  , 65.5172,  0.3448,  0.    ]])

The state vector in the DLE class is:

$$x_t = \left[ {\begin{array}{c} h_{t-1} \\ k_{t-1} \\ z_t \end{array} } \right]$$

where $k_{t-1}$ = $b_{t}$ is set up to be $b_t$ in the permanent income model.

The state vector in the LQ problem is $\begin{bmatrix} z_t \\ b_t \end{bmatrix}$.

Consequently, the relevant elements of econ1.Sc are the same as in $-F$ occur when we apply other approaches to the same model in the lecture Optimal Savings II: LQ Techniques and this Jupyter notebook http://nbviewer.jupyter.org/github/QuantEcon/QuantEcon.notebooks/blob/master/permanent_income.ipynb.

The plot below quickly replicates the first two figures of that lecture and that notebook to confirm that the solutions are the same

In :
fig, (ax1, ax2) = plt.subplots(1, 2, figsize=(16, 5))

for i in range(25):
econ1.compute_sequence(x0, ts_length=150)
ax1.plot(econ1.c, c='g')
ax1.plot(econ1.d, c='b')
ax1.plot(econ1.c, label='Consumption', c='g')
ax1.plot(econ1.d, label='Income', c='b')
ax1.legend()

for i in range(25):
econ1.compute_sequence(x0, ts_length=150)
ax2.plot(econ1.k, color='r')
ax2.plot(econ1.k, label='Debt', c='r')
ax2.legend()
plt.show() • Share page